Green Climate Fund (GCF), the new multi-billion climate fund, was designated as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC, in accordance with Article 11 of the UNFCCC. The COP 16 brings the issue into light and after COP 20, now GCF has become successful to a certain extent in initial resource mobilization process that led to the mobilization of $10.3 billion to date by contributing parties. The institution was proposed in 2009 Copenhagen Conference, Denmark and formed in 2010 Cancun Conference, Mexico. Headquartered in Songdo, South Korea, GCF started funding in 2015.
Bangladesh has been very active in the UNFCCC negotiations for long and has also taken a pragmatic approach as soon as the GCF emerged. In September 2014, the government of Bangladesh nominated Economic Relations Division (ERD) of Ministry of Finance as the National Designated Authority (NDA) of Bangladesh to GCF. As per standard procedure, NDAs are chosen by governments to act as the core interface between a country and the Fund. NDAs provide broad oversight of GCF’s activities in a country and serve as the point of communication with the Fund.
Bangladesh has received one of the very first funding and since then Bangladesh has received three projects from GCF. The projects funded by GCF in Bangladesh are:
- Climate-Resilient Infrastructure Mainstreaming in Bangladesh (FP004) through German Development Bank (KfW)
- Enhancing adaptive capacities of coastal communities, especially women, to cope with climate change induced salinity (FP069) through United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Global
- Clean Cooking Program – Bangladesh (FP070) through World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and International Development Association)
2. PROJECT FEATURES
- Name of the Project: Global Clean Cooking Program – Bangladesh (FP070)
- Location: Whole Bangladesh
- Coverage: Commercially dissemination of 4 million ICS
- Project Period: 3.5 Years (1 June 2018 - 31 December 2021)
- ESF Risk Category (GCF): C
- First Submission of Proposal: 23 June 2017
- Final Submission of Proposal: 16 March 2018
- Date of Approval: March 2018
- Funding Agency: Green Climate Fund (GCF)
- Lending Agency: International Development Association (IDA)
- Management Agency: The World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and International Development Association)
- National Designated Authority (NDA): Economic Relations Division (ERD), Ministry of Finance (MOF)
- Implementing Agency: Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL) and its partners
- Total Budget: USD 82.7 Million
- Component 1: Scaling-up Investment in Improved Cook-stoves: GCF USD 18,000,000.00; WB/IDA USD 10,100,000.00; Local Beneficiary USD 42,170,000.00: Total USD 70.27 Million
- Component 2: Technical Assistance to Enhance Supplier Capacity and Demand: GCF USD 574,444.93; WB/IDA USD 2,836,454.27: Total USD 3.41 Million
- Project Management Costs: GCF USD 1,425,555.07; WB/IDA USD 6,663,545.73: Total USD 8.49 Million
- Contingency: WB/IDA USD 400,000.00
- International Development Association (IDA): Soft loan: USD 20.00 Million
- Local Beneficiaries: Contribution to Buy Improved Cook-stoves: USD 42.17 Million
- Green Climate Fund (GCF): Grant: USD 20.00 Million
To reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, solid fuel use for cooking and Household Air Pollution (HAP) in Bangladesh by creating a sustainable market for higher efficiency cook-stoves in the country. The widespread introduction of Improved Cook-Stoves (ICS) will have significant health benefits on rural population in Bangladesh by reducing the exposure of households to HAP and creating a safe indoors environment, which will primarily benefit women and children.
- Component 1: To leverage private-sector finance through purchases made by end users equivalent to the total size of the Project.
- Component 2: To provide technical assistance to enhance supplier capacity on the one hand and increase the demand for ICS among end users on the other hand.
Specific Outcome: Commercially dissemination of 4 million Improved Cook-Stoves (ICS)
Emission Reduction: Approximately 2.9 Million Tonnes of Carbon-Di-Oxide emission avoided
Potential NGO Partners
- COAST Trust
- Gana Unnyan Kendra (GUK)
- Independent University Bangladesh (IUB)
- Jago Nari
- Khan Foundation
- Maleya Foundation
- Trinamul Unnayan Sangstha (TUS)
3. INITIAL OBSERVATION ON THE PROJECT
- The rural women are the worst victims of climate crisis in Bangladesh. They are also victimized due to patriarchal culture and social superstitions. So, they are ethically entitled to get reparations for adaptation and betterment of their lives and livelihoods. But this project will further trap them in credits to avail the improved cook-stoves.
- The project will benefit the commercial producers of improved cook-stoves and market mechanism of oven which will ultimately deprive the rural women who will have to pay the costs of improved cook-stoves.
- Almost 25% of Bangladeshi rural poor families are dependent on fuel-woods collected from common jungles which are free. This project will create extra burden of expenditure on rural poorest families to collect Pellets/Briquettes and improved cook-stoves from commercial producers while the rural women are quite skilled to make their own earthen ovens.
- According to Bangladesh population census 2011, total number of rural households of Bangladesh is around 20 million. At least six international and national organizations including GIZ (1 million nos reported), USAID (325,881 nos reported), CARE, BRAC, Grameen Shakti, Proshika, their partners and Bangladesh Government [Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund (528,000 nos reported)] distributed or sold millions of cook-stoves in last decades. How much cook-stoves are required in the rural areas is a question now.
- Due to burden of maintenance and market dependent fuel collection system, the cook-stoves are not popular and the women are not using those after buying from selling NGOs or producers. Providing more cook-stoves will only create more garbage in the communities.
4. OBJECTIVES OF MONITORING GCCP
- To identify gaps and possible options to ensure women rights and justice in the Global Clean Cooking Program - Bangladesh (GCCPB)
- To encourage targeted women participants of the project (FP070) to participate in the decision making level of clean cook-stoves.
- To sensitize civil society, policymakers and decision-making leaders to ensure rights of women for better implementation of the project.
5. PROCESS & ACTIONS
- Review of different literature including Secondary data, previous experience, study reports and reports of implementing organizations and producers
- Review of different policies and legal frameworks including National Energy Policy, National Sustainable and Renewable Energy Action Plan, Project Proposal, Gender Assessment and Gender Action Plan
- Focus Group Discussion to gather qualitative information on willingness and recommendations from the communities
- Preparation of Draft Report
- National Consultation on Women Rights, Market Mechanism and Effectiveness of Clean Cook-stoves with participation of around 60 persons from different sectors of the society: targeted beneficiaries, journalists, policymakers, implementing institutes, NDA representatives etc.
- Finalization and Publication of the Report
Supported by: Asia-Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development (APFWLD)
Research Officer, CLEAN